What is Aroma?
At it's most basic, aroma is the smell of coffee. It's responsible for many of the flavor attributes not directly perceived by the tongue (which are sweet, salt, bitter, sour and umami). There are over 800 known aromatics in coffee with new ones being discovered regularly thanks to advances in testing equipment.
What is Body?
The term “body” refers to the mouthfeel of the coffee, or the weight/viscosity of the coffee on the tongue.A coffee’s body can be described by many characteristics, but some of the most common include “thin,” “watery,” “syrupy,” “heavy,” or “buttery.” Just think of your favorite milk type and how you would describe it—skim milk tends to be “watery” while 2% milk tends to be heavier or “buttery.”
The bean, where it was grown, roast levels and the brew method can all affect the body of a coffee. While there are variations in body based on the bean and its growing altitude, the brew method can cause the biggest change to body.
What is Acidity?
Acidity is a primary coffee flavor sensation that is perceived as a pleasing sharpness toward the front of the mouth, a numbing sensation on the tip of the tongue, or a dryness at the back of the palate and/or under the edges of the tongue. It denotes or helps to describe the quality of a coffee.
Acidity is one of the major coffee characteristics along with body, aroma, sweetness, bitterness and aftertaste used by coffee professionals to describe the taste of a coffee. Acidity is a pleasant snap or crispness and is a desirable characteristic. It has nothing to do with the level of acid (the pH) of the coffee.
Acidity is generally very noticeable and can be described as being sweet, crisp and/or tart. Somewhat like a dry wine. This enhances other qualities in the coffee.
The Coffee Roasting Spectrum
Coffee Grind Chart